Sleep Literature Updates

Cognitive Unbinding: A Neuroscientific Paradigm of General Anesthesia and Related States of Unconsciousness

A very interesting review that explores the concept of cognitive unbinding. “It is concluded that cognitive unbinding is a viable neuroscientific framework for unconscious processes across the fields of anesthesiology, sleep neurobiology, neurology and psychoanalysis”.

Measuring Sleep: Accuracy, Sensitivity, and Specificity of Wrist Actigraphy Compared to Polysomnography

Actigraphy is overall a useful and valid means for estimating total sleep time and wakefulness after sleep onset in field and workplace studies, with some limitations in specificity.

Self-Reported Sleep Disturbance is Associated With Lower CD4 Count and 24-Hour Urinary Dopamine Levels in Minority Women Living With HIV

A study 139 low income women with HIV found that after controlling for HIV viral load, length of time with HIV, HAART adherence, perceived stress and depression, greater sleep disturbance, by self-report, was associated with lower CD4 count and lower levels of dopamine. Poorer overall sleep quality, measured by PSQI, was marginally associated with CD4 count.

Disturbed Sleep and Inflammatory Cytokines in Depressed and Nondepressed Pregnant Women: An Exploratory Analysis of Pregnancy Outcomes

Self-reported sleep and plasma cytokines were obtained in a cohort of depressed and non-depressed pregnant women at 20 and 30 weeks gestation. Among depressed women, short sleep duration was associated with higher IL-8, while poor sleep continuity was associated with higher IL-6. Higher IFN-gamma was associated with increase risk of pre-term birth in depressed women.

Acute Sleep Restriction Reduces Insulin Sensitivity in Adolescent Boys

In a randomized cross-over design, 21 healthy normal weight males underwent 3 consecutive nights of sleep restriction (4 hr/night) and long sleep (9 hr/night). Pre– and post-prandial glucose, insulin and other metabolic markers were obtained. Fasting insulin, fasting C-peptide and post-prandial C-peptide were higher in sleep restriction condition than long sleep. HOMA-IR was also higher under sleep restriction.

Habitual Shortened Sleep and Insulin Resistance: An Independent Relationship in Obese Individuals

Non-diabetic, overweight/obese participants who were insulin-resistant or insulin-sensitive underwent an oral glucose tolerance test.  Individuals reporting short habitual sleep duration (<7 hours/night) were more likely to be insulin-resistant than insulin-sensitive.

Occurrence of Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Deprivation After Surgery Under Regional Anesthesia

This study shows that postoperative reduction of REM sleep occurs after surgery with general anesthesia as it does with regional anesthesia.

Advanced Sleep Schedules Affect Circadian Gene Expression in Young Adults with Delayed Sleep Schedules

Twenty-one young adults had their blood drawn 1.5 hours before and 1.5 hours after the estimated time of dim light melatonin onset (DMLO). Participants were randomized to one week of either 1-hour morning blue light exposure or comparable dim light exposure; circadian genes were assessed. Analyses revealed significant changes in gene expression of 10 circadian genes in response to sleep-wake schedule advancement and morning blue-light stimulation.

One Night On-Call: Sleep Deprivation Affects Cardiac Autonomic Control and Inflammation in Physicians

Fifteen healthy residents in Internal Medicine were studied before and after one night on-call (i.e., acute sleep deprivation (ASD)) at rest and during gravitational stimulus. ASD was associated with modulation of sympathovagal balance toward sympathetic activation and increased levels of IFN-gamma compared to baseline. ASD was unrelated to changes in blood pressure variability and baroreflex sensitivity.

Selective Slow Wave Sleep But Not Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Suppression Impairs Morning Glucose Tolerance in Healthy Men

Sixteen healthy men underwent 3 experimental conditions in a cross-over design: SWS suppression, REM-sleep disturbance, and regular sleep; a glucose tolerance test was obtained the following morning. Morning plasma glucose and serum insulin responses were selectively increased and postprandial insulin sensitivity was reduced after SWS suppression. Disturbed REM had no effect on glucose homeostasis.