Literature Updates from September 2018

Outcomes of adenoidectomy-alone in patients less than 3-years old.

Adenoidectomy-alone is a surgical option for young children given its low risk compared to adenotonsillectomy. This retrospective cohort study from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, addresses specific outcomes such as the rate of further surgical revisions and or tonsillectomy in children younger than three years of age. Thirty-five percent of children identified in this cohort (n=148) required additional surgical interventions within approximately 24 months of follow-up after adenoidectomy-alone. The most common procedure was adenotonsillectomy. Risk factors associated with residual symptoms following surgery were gastroesophageal reflux and tonsil size.

Evaluating the effects of general anesthesia on sleep in children undergoing elective surgery: an observational case–control study

In this study, general anesthesia did not result in disturbed sleep or associated negative behavioral changes in otherwise healthy children undergoing elective surgeries of low complexity. Physicians can advise parents that a child’s surgery and associated generalanesthetic exposure may not result in significant changes in postoperative sleep patterns.

Sleep-disordered breathing in C57BL/6J mice with diet-induced obesity

Obesity leads to sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) manifested by recurrent upper airway obstructions termed obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and carbon dioxide retention due to hypoventilation. The objective of this work was to characterize breathing during sleep in C57BL6/J mice with diet-induced obesity (DIO). (…) We conclude that DIO in mice leads to hypoventilation. Obesity also increases the frequency of inspiratory limited breaths, but it does not translate into progression of OSA.