A study 139 low income women with HIV found that after controlling for HIV viral load, length of time with HIV, HAART adherence, perceived stress and depression, greater sleep disturbance, by self-report, was associated with lower CD4 count and lower levels of dopamine. Poorer overall sleep quality, measured by PSQI, was marginally associated with CD4 count.
Self-reported sleep and plasma cytokines were obtained in a cohort of depressed and non-depressed pregnant women at 20 and 30 weeks gestation. Among depressed women, short sleep duration was associated with higher IL-8, while poor sleep continuity was associated with higher IL-6. Higher IFN-gamma was associated with increase risk of pre-term birth in depressed women.
In a randomized cross-over design, 21 healthy normal weight males underwent 3 consecutive nights of sleep restriction (4 hr/night) and long sleep (9 hr/night). Pre– and post-prandial glucose, insulin and other metabolic markers were obtained. Fasting insulin, fasting C-peptide and post-prandial C-peptide were higher in sleep restriction condition than long sleep. HOMA-IR was also higher under sleep restriction.
Non-diabetic, overweight/obese participants who were insulin-resistant or insulin-sensitive underwent an oral glucose tolerance test. Individuals reporting short habitual sleep duration (<7 hours/night) were more likely to be insulin-resistant than insulin-sensitive.