Literature Updates from July 2016

Sleep-Related Breathing Disorder, Cognitive Functioning, and Behavioral-Psychiatric Syndromes in Children

Definitive evidence showing that SDB causes cognitive and behavioral impairment has yet to emerge, although a randomized controlled trial evaluating neuropsychological and health outcomes of treatment for SDB in children is currently underway.

Effect of Adenotonsillectomy on ADHD Symptoms of Children with Adenotonsillar Hypertrophy and Sleep Disordered Breathing

Based on the results of this pilot study, AT in children with SDB associated with ADHD resulted in a significant decrease in the severity of ADHD symptoms.

Temporal Characteristics of the Sleep EEG Power Spectrum in Critically Ill Children

The results presented herein challenge the assumption that children experience restorative sleep during critical illness, highlighting the need for interventional studies to determine whether sleep promotion improves outcomes in critically ill children undergoing active neurocognitive development.

Upper Airway Length is Predictive of Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Syndromic Craniosynostosis

Patients with syndromic craniosynostosis and OSA have a longer upper airway, smaller posterior airway space, and more severe midfacial retrusion than those without OSA.

Lateral Facial Profile May Reveal the Risk for Sleep Disordered Breathing in Children-the PANIC-Study

The present results indicate that, in order to recognize the morphological risk for SDB, one would need to be trained for the purpose and, as well, needs sufficient knowledge of the growth and development of the face.

Upper Airway Imaging in Pediatric Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome

We reviewed the literature to examine if upper airway imaging could replace polysomnography in making the diagnosis and if imaging could predict the effect of treatment with a focus on adenotonsillectomy.

Utility of Screening Questionnaire, Obesity, Neck Circumference, and Sleep Polysomnography to Predict Sleep-Disordered Breathing in Children and Adolescents

We developed a six-question scale with good predictive utility for OSA. These findings may contribute to developing a preoperative clinical tool to help clinicians identify children with OSA for determining risk stratification and postoperative disposition.

Diagnosis of Pediatric Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome in Settings With Limited Resources

The combined use of the sleep clinical record score and nocturnal oximetry results has moderate success in predicting sleep-disordered breathing severity when PSG testing is not an option.

Risk Factors for Respiratory Complications After Adenotonsillectomy in Children with Obstructive Sleep Apnea

Among children up to 12 years of age with OSA, those who have a high AHI, a high ODI, a low SpO2 nadir, or rhinitis are more likely to develop respiratory complications after adenotonsillectomy than are those without such characteristics.

Are Nocturnal Hypoxemia and Hypercapnia Associated with Desaturation Immediately After Adenotonsillectomy?

Patients <3 years of age are most likely to have postoperative hypoxemia after adenotonsillectomy. Gas exchange abnormalities did not correlate with postoperative desaturations, although age and peak EtCO2 did strongly correlate.