Category Archives: Clinical Pediatric

Altered Regional Brain Cortical Thickness in Pediatric Obstructive Sleep Apnea

Changes in cortical thickness are present in children with OSA and likely indicate disruption to neural developmental processes, including maturational patterns of cortical volume increases and synaptic pruning. Regions with thicker cortices may reflect inflammation or astrocyte activation. Both the thinning and thickening associated with OSA in children may contribute to the cognitive and behavioral dysfunction frequently found in the condition.

Clinical application of MRI-respiratory gating technology in the evaluation of children with obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome

“Stenosis of the nasopalatine pharyngeal cavity in children with adenoidal hypertrophy was greatest at the end-expiration phase during sleep. The end-expiratory Sa/Snp obtained by a combination of MRI and respiratory gating technology has potential as an important imaging index for diagnosing and evaluating severity in pediatric OSAHS.”

Intermittent nocturnal hypoxia and metabolic risk in obese adolescents with obstructive sleep apnea

“Intermittent nocturnal hypoxia rather than the OAHI was associated with metabolic risk in obese youth after adjusting for WHtR. Measures of abdominal adiposity such as WHtR should be considered in future studies that evaluate the impact of OSA on metabolic health.” comment in PubMed Commons below

Severe obstructive sleep disorders in Prader-Willi syndrome patients in southern Italy

“OSA was the predominant sleep-related disorder in our PWS patients, not associated with age or obesity, and appeared more severe than previously reported. Further studies addressing the underlying mechanisms are necessary in larger study populations to better design the most appropriate clinical approach.” What is Known: • Sleep-related patterns and their management are very limited in patients with Prader-Willi syndrome. What is New: • Severe obstructive sleep apnoea is the most frequent sleep-related disorder in our case series.

Increased Incidence of Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Hospitalized Children following Enterovirus Infection: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study

Children with severe EV infection (i.e. requiring hospitalization) carry a significantly higher risk of developing OSA, particularly in those with allergic rhinitis. As pediatric obstructive sleep apnea is a treatable sleep disorder, we emphasize regular follow-up and early detection in children with EV infection.

Convergent validity of actigraphy with polysomnography and parent reports when measuring sleep in children with Down syndrome

Our current data suggest that actigraph watches demonstrate convergent validity and are sensitive to measuring certain sleep constructs (duration, efficiency) in children with Down syndrome. However, parent reports, such as the Children’s Sleep Habits Questionnaire, may be measuring other sleep constructs. These findings highlight the importance of selecting measures of sleep related to target concerns

An updated review of pediatric drug-induced sleep endoscopy

DISE is a safe and useful technique to assess levels of obstruction in children. There is currently no universally-accepted anesthetic protocol or scoring system for pediatric DISE, but both will be necessary in order to provide a consistent method to report findings, enhance communication among providers and optimize surgical outcomes.