Literature Updates from July 2014

The Relationship Between Hippocampal Volume and Cognition in Patients With Chronic Primary Insomnia

In this study the authors found that hippocampal volume (HV) in primary insomniacs (PI) was negatively correlated with the duration of insomnia and the arousal index. PIs exhibited significantly impaired attention, frontal lobe function, and memory, and their verbal and nonverbal memory scores were positively correlated with HV. These findings suggest that chronic sleep deprivation associated with insomnia impairs memory and frontal lobe function, and that insomnia duration and poor sleep quality contribute to a bilateral reduction in HV.

Circadian Cycle-Dependent EEG Biomarkers of Pathogenicity in Adult Mice Following Prenatal Exposure to in Utero Inflammation

The authors found that exposure to in utero inflammation in mice resulted in significantly altered sleep architecture as adults were circadian cycle and activity state dependent

Apnea-Hypopnea Index Use Among Intensive Care Patients: A Case Series

In this study, the authors review eight cases where the apnea-hypopnea index was determined using ApneaLink™. The authors describe the ApneaLink™ tool as a simple and inexpensive device that determines the apnea hypopnea index with a sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 87.5% respectively. The cases demonstrate that the ApneaLink™ device can be utilized in a variety of clinical situations such as post-operatively and in the ICU. In each of the case studies, the ApneaLink™ device help the authors make better management decisions such as ICU admission after surgery or discharge from the ICU with CPAP. The authors also demonstrate how this device can be used to enhance informed consent.

Obstructive Sleep Apnea, Obesity, and the Development of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

In this study, the authors evaluated weather obstructive sleep apnea could increase the risk of pulmonary complications and ARDS in a cohort of 5584 surgical patients from 22 different hospitals. All patients had at least one risk factor for ARDS. 252 of the patient had OSA and 66% of these patients were obese. After statistical analysis, the authors could not conclude that OSA was a risk factor for ARDS. However, BMI was independently associated with ARDS. Hence, it appears that obese patients, with at least one risk factors for ARDS, are at increase risk of developing this severe pulmonary complication post-operatively.

Sleep Clinical Record: An Aid to Rapid and Accurate Diagnosis of Paediatric Sleep Disordered Breathing

SCS may effectively be used to screen patients as candidates for PSG study for suspected OSA syndrome, and to enable those with a mild form of SDB to receive early treatment.

Low-Grade Albuminuria in Children With Obstructive Sleep Apnea

In conclusion, children with moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnea are at significantly higher risk of increased low-grade excretion of albumin in the morning urine as compared with control subjects without obstructive sleep apnea. These findings may reflect altered permeability of the glomerular filtration barrier related to nocturnal hypoxemia and sympathetic activation which are induced by obstructive sleep apnea.

Alterations in Circulating T-Cell Lymphocyte Populations in Children With Obstructive Sleep Apnea

Pediatric OSA is associated with reduced T reg population and altered Th1:Th2 balance toward Th1 predominance, suggesting a shift to a proinflammatory state. The changes in lymphocytic phenotypes associated with OSA may contribute to the variance in systemic inflammation and downstream morbidities associated with this condition.

TREM-1 and Pentraxin-3 Plasma Levels and Their Association With Obstructive Sleep Apnea, Obesity, and Endothelial Function in Children

OSA, and may play a role in modulating the degree of systemic inflammation. The short-term and long-term significance of elevated TREM-1 and pentraxin-3 in OSA-induced end-organ morbidity remains to be defined.

C-Reactive Protein and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Children With Sleep Disordered Breathing

The results of this study suggest an association between OSA and Hs-CRP concentrations (mainly mediated by overweight and obesity), but not between OSA and subclinical atherosclerosis.