Obstructive sleep apnea has been linked to chronic inflammation and cardiovascular diseases. This work demonstrated that OSA is associated with enhanced expression and signaling events downstream of TLR2 and TLR4 in circulating monocytes. These observations were mitigated by CPAP therapy, which suggest that TLR2 and TLR4 activation may be involved as a signaling mechanism in immune-mediated progression of atherosclerosis in OSA.
Adenosine has several actions depending on the receptors targeted. This work supports the interpretation that an adenosinergic-cholinergic interaction within the –tailed hypothesis that adenosine A1 receptors in the pontine comprises one neurochemical mechanism underlying the wakefulness stimulus for breathing.
This work demonstrated that volatile anesthetics are capable of directly activating endogenous sleep-promoting networks by activating VLPO nucleus.
In this paper, we will critically review the available evidence linking OSAS to systemic inflammation in children using CRP levels as the reporter biomarker.
PAP adherence in children and adolescents is related primarily to family and demographic factors rather than severity of apnea or measures of psychosocial functioning. Further research is needed to determine the relative contributions of maternal education, socioeconomic status and cultural beliefs to PAP adherence in children, in order to develop better adherence programs.
Craniofacialmorphology may influence the severity of sleep apnea in boys but not in girls.
The aim of this study was to demonstrate postoperative changes in sleepquality in children with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), using both conventional sleep staging and electrocardiogram-based cardiopulmonary coupling (CPC) analysis. In pediatric OSA, postoperative improvement of sleepquality is more readily discernible by CPC analysis than EEG-based sleep staging.
They concluded “The CAS-15 proved useful in an office setting and correctly diagnosed 72% of referred children when compared to polysomnography. It correlated well with external measures and demonstrated a good response to clinical change.”
They concluded “Neither single nor combined symptoms and signs have satisfactory performance in predicting pediatric OSA. Alternative diagnostic models are necessary to improve the accuracy.”
The authors of this study sought to determine if sleep regulation as regulated by circadian and homeostatic processes remains organized in patients being mechanically ventilated. The authors discovered that circadian rhythm pacemaker function appears to be “free running” in most patients evaluated.