Nocturnal Autonomic Function in Preschool Children With Sleep-Disordered Breathing

In preschool children, OSA is associated with altered HRV, largely due to the HF fluctuations in heart rate (HR) which occur during respiratory events and are still evident during stable sleep. The preschool age may represent a window of opportunity for treatment of OSA before the onset of the severe autonomic dysfunction associated with OSA in adults and older children.

Urinary Neurotransmitters Are Selectively Altered in Children With Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Predict Cognitive Morbidity

Combinatorial approaches using defined cutoffs in overnight changes in concentrations of selected neurotransmitters in urine may not only predict OSA but also the presence of cognitive deficits. Larger cohort studies appear warranted to confirm these findings.

Circulating Adropin Concentrations in Pediatric Obstructive Sleep Apnea: Potential Relevance to Endothelial Function

Plasma adropin concentrations are reduced in pediatric OSA when endothelial dysfunction is present, and return to within normal values after adenotonsillectomy. Assessment of circulating adropin concentrations may provide a reliable indicator of vascular injury in the context of OSA in children.

Sleep Apnea and Risk of Pneumonia: A Nationwide Population-Based Study

In this large population based study, over 34,000 patients were followed to explore the risk of incident pneumonia among adults with sleep apnea, either with or without the need of CPAP therapy. Using administrative databases, patients with sleep apnea were compared to controls matched for age, sex, and comorbidities. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that patients with sleep apnea had a higher incidence of pneumonia. After multivariate adjustment, a 1.20-fold increase in incident pneumonia was noted in patients with sleep apnea. It was interesting to note that the risk was even higher among patients who received CPAP therapy, however data on compliance to therapy was not available. The limitations of the study include reliability of the administrative database codes for the diagnosis of sleep apnea possibly resulting in a misclassification bias.

Sleep Apnoea Adversely Affects the Outcome in Patients Who Undergo Posterior Lumbar Fusion: A Population-Based Study

Using a national database, patients who underwent lumbar fusion between 2006 and 2010 were identified, and sub-grouped by diagnosis of sleep apnoea and compared. Sleep apnoea emerged as an independent risk factor for the development of peri-operative complications (odds ratio (OR) 1.50, confidence interval (CI) 1.38;1.62), blood product transfusions (OR 1.12, CI 1.03;1.23), mechanical ventilation (OR 6.97, CI 5.90;8.23), critical care services (OR 1.86, CI 1.71;2.03), prolonged hospitalisation and increased cost (OR 1.28, CI 1.19;1.37; OR 1.10, CI 1.03;1.18).